NOUN CLAUSES

noun_clauses

Noun clause adalah clause yang difungsikan sebagai noun. Noun clause dalam kalimat pada umumnya digunakan sebagai subject dan object kalimat.

A. Noun Clauses diawali dengan Question words

Dalam How to Address Questions sudah dibahas tentang penggunaan kata tanya baik dalam membuat information questions maupun dalam membuat embedded questions.  Embedded questions tersebut adalah noun clause. Dalam section ini diberikan contoh tambahan untuk merefresh memori anda.

1. Single question words.

  1. Where she is now is still unknown.
  2. When they arrive is still uncertain.
  3. I know what you did last summer and I still know what you did last summer are two Hollywood movies starred by Jennifer Love Hewitt.

Perhatikan: dalam kalimat ini, noun clause what you did last summer menjadi object dari I know dan I still know, dan setelah digabung dengan: are two Hollywood movies starred by Jennifer Love Hewitt, menjadi subject majemuk dari kalimat.

Noun clause dapat ditempatkan diawal kalimat (sebagai subject) atau sebagai object. Jika anda ingin merubah posisi noun clause dari subject kalimat menjadi object kalimat, biasanya dibutuhkan pronoun it atau sedikit modifikasi kata. Contoh di atas menjadi:

  1. It is still unknown where she is now.
  2. Do you know when they arrive?
  3. Two Hollywood movies starred by Jennifer Love Hewitt are I know what you did last summer and I still know what you did last summer. Karena merupakan judul movies, noun clause what you did last summer tidak perlu diputar posisinya.

Note:

a) Clause yang diawali oleh question words tertentu (i.e. when, whenever, where) juga dapat berfungsi sebagai adverbial clause.

  1. I was reading a book when the phone rang.
  2. I went to where I and my ex girlfriend had been last weekend.
  3. I suddenly get nausea whenever I see his face. (nausea = mual/mau muntah).

b). Clause yang diawali oleh question words tertentu (i.e. who, whom, whose + noun) juga dapat berfungsi sebagai adjective clause. Dalam hal ini, kata tanya tersebut sebenarnya adalah relative pronoun. Well, jangan terlalu dipusingkan dengan istilah. Yang penting anda mengerti pola/struktur kalimatnya. Tapi, jika anda penasaran, silakan baca topic adjective clauses.

  1. I think you whom Mr. Dodi was looking for. (Saya kira kamu (orang) yang pak Dodi sedang cari-cari tadi).
  2. Mr. Dodi, who is a teacher, was looking for you at school.
  3. Rommy, whose book was stolen last week, just bought another new book yesterday.

2. Question words + ever/soever

Kecuali how, diakhir question words dapat ditambahkan ever atau soever menjadi whenever = whensoever, whatever= whatsoever, dan seterusnya. Arti ever atau soever di sini sama, yaitu saja/pun, tinggal dikombinasikan dengan kata tanya di depannya. Sedangkan, how+ever menjadi however (i.e. adverb atau juga disebut kata transisi yang berarti namun/walapun demikian) tidak termasuk dalam katagori ini.

  1. We will accept whatever you want us to do. (Kami akan menerima/melakukan apa saja yang kamu ingin kami lakukan).
  2. Whoever can melt her feeling is a very lucky guy. (melt = meluluhkan). Be careful: guy (dibaca gae)= laki-laki, sedangkan gay (dibaca gei) = fag = homo.
  3. She has agreed to wherever the man would bring her. (Dia telah setuju kemanapun pria itu membawanya pergi). Note: in speaking (informal), preposition (dalam hal ini to, etc.) biasanya diletakkan di ujung kalimat. She has agreed wherever the man would bring her to.

3. Question words + nouns

Question words + nouns yang sering digunakan antara lain: what time (jam berapa), what day (hari apa), what time (jam berapa), what kind (jenis apa), what type (tipe apa), whose + nouns (i.e. whose car, whose book, ect.), dan seterusnya.

  1. I can’t remember what day we will take the exam.
  2. As long as I am faithful, she doesn’t care what type of family I come from. (faithful = setia).
  3. Do you know what time it is?
  4. I don’t know whose car is parked in front of my house.

4. Question words + adjectives

Question words + adjectives yang sering digunakan antara lain: how long (berapa panjang/lama), how far (berapa jauh), how old (berapa tua/umur), ect.

  1. Man! She still looks young. Do you know how old she actually is?
  2. I am lost. Could you tell me how far it is from here to the post office?
  3. What a jerk. He didn’t even ask how long I had been waiting for him.

5. Question words + determiners.

Question words + determiners yang sering digunakan adalah: how many (berapa banyak) dan  how much (berapa banyak). Remember: how many diikuti oleh plural nouns, sedangkan how much diikuti oleh uncountable nouns.

  1. Is there any correlation between how good he or she is in English and how many books he or she has?
  2. How much your English skill will improve is determined by how hard you practice.

6. Question words + adverbs.

Question words + adverbs yang sering digunakan adalah: how often (berapa sering), how many times (berapa kali) ect.

  1. No matter how often I practice, my English still sucks. (Tidak memandang berapa kali saya latihan, bahasa Inggris saya masih jelek). Suck (informal verb) = jelek/tidak baik; arti suck yang lain: mengisap.
  2. I don’t want my parents to know how many times I have left school early. (leave school early = bolos).

7. Question words + infinitives.

Jika question words langsung diikuti oleh infinitives, invinitives tersebut mengandung makna should atau can/could. Perhatikan bahwa subject setelah question words dihilangkan.

  1. She didn’t know what to do = She didn’t know what she should do. (Dia tidak tahu apa yang seharusnya dia lakukan).
  2. Please tell me how to get the train station from here = Please tell me how I can get the train station from here.
  3. We haven’t decided when to go to the beach = We haven’t decided when we should go to the beach.
  4. Marry told us where to find her = Marry told us where we could find her.

B. Noun clauses diawali dengan whether/if

Whether bisa diikuti oleh OR/NOT bisa juga tidak; makna kalimat biasanya sama walaupun OR/NOT tidak disebutkan (ini tergantung konteks kalimat). Untuk penggunaan if, selain telah dibahas di topic conjunctions, juga telah dibahas di topic conditionals. Note: whether pelafalannya sama dengan weather (cuaca), tulisannya juga mirip. Be careful, jangan sampai tertukar.

  1. I am not sure whether she is coming or not = I am not sure whether or not she is coming = I am not sure whether she is coming. (Saya tidak yakin apakah dia akan datang atau tidak).
  2. We can’t decide whether we should go out or stay home. = We can’t decide whether to go or (to) stay home. Perhatikan, infinitives juga dapat digunakan setelah whether.
  3. I am not sure whether I should take economics or law after I graduate from high school. (Saya tidak yakin apakah saya harus ngambil Ekonomi atau Hukum setelah lulus SMA nanti).
  4. If you take economics, I will take economics. On the other hand, if you take law, I will take law too.

C. Noun clauses diawali dengan that/the fact that

Di sini that berarti bahwa, sedangkan the fact that berarti fakta bahwa. Sedangkan, that dalam adjective clauses berarti yang.

  1. That she has had a PhD degree at the age of 20 surprises a lot of people = It surprises a lot of people that she has had a PhD degree at the age of 20.
  2. It is the fact that the world is round = the fact that the world is round is well known.
  3. It was obvious that she was very sick = The fact that she was very sick was obvious.
  4. It seems that it is going to rain soon.

Sekarang coba anda latihan buat kalimat dengan menggunakan:

  1. It is + (true, too bad, unfortunate, strange, impossible, unlikely, a well known fact, my belief, etc) + (that/the fact that) + S +V.
  2. It + stative + (that/the fact that) + S +V. Kata-kata yang termasuk stative verbs dapat dilihat pada topik simple present tense.

Change into plural form:
A cock is an animal.                                                   Cooks are animals.

Lady talks to an old woman.                                  Ladies talks to an old woman.

A cow milks a calf.                                                     Cows milks a calf.

There is ten good teacher in my school.          There are ten good teachers in my school.

What he get makes his family pround.               What he gets makes his family proud.

There is a book on the shelf                                   There are books on the shelf.

Is there a mouse in the house ?                            Are there mouses in the house ?

A policeman arrests a thiefs.                                 Policemans arrests a thief.

Child runs in the garden.                                         Children runs in the garden.

Is there five pencil in my bag ?                            Are there five pencil in my bag ?

Sumber: http://wantosakti.wordpress.com/2012/04/25/noun-clauses/

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

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Direct and Indirect Speech, yang juga kita kenal dengan istilah lain yaitu Reported Speech. Direct Speect adalah kalimat yang diucapkan secara langsung oleh pembicara dan jika ditulis kalimat tersebut akan diberi tanda kutip. Sedangkan Indirect Speech adalah kalimat yang kita laporkan kepada orang lain secara tidak langsung dan tanpa diberi koma.
Contoh:
Reporting verb: Tono says,
Reported words ”I’m very good at English”
Tense yang harus kita perhatikan dalam pola ini yaitu:
Direct Speech:
Simple Present Tense
Present Continuous Tense
Present Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Simple Past Tense
Simple Future Tense
Future Continouos Tense
Conditional
Indirect Speech:
Simple Past Tense
Past Continuous Tense
Past Perfect Tense
Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Past Perfect Tense
Past Future Tense/Conditional
Past Future Continuous Tense (Conditional Continuous)
Conditional
Kalau reported speech berhubungan dengan kebenaran umum atau fakta yang sudah menjadi kebiasaan, present indefinite atau simple present dalam reported speech tidak diubah ke dalam bentuk lampau yang sesuai, melainkan tetap persis sebagaimana adanya,
Contoh :
He said, “The sun rises in the east” → He said that the sun rises in the east.
PERUBAHAN ADVERB OF TIME (KETERANGAN WAKTU) YANG PERLU DIPERHATIKAN:
Direct  :                                               Indirect :
Now                                        →        Then
Today                                      →        That day
Tonight                                    →        That night
This week                                →        That week
Yesterday                                →        The day before
The day before yesterday       →        Two days before
Last night                                →        The night before
Last week/year                        →        The previous week/year
A year ago                               →        A year before/The previous year
Three years ago                       →        Three years before
Tomorrow                               →        The next day/The following day
The day after tomorrow          →        In two day’s time/The following day
Next week/year                       →        The following week/year
On Sunday                              →        On Sunday
Here                                        →        There
This book                                →        The book
This                                         →        That
These                                       →        Those
Over there                               →        Over there
*etc.
PERUBAHAN-PERUBAHAN AUXILIARIES (KATA BANTU) YANG HARUS DIPERHATIKAN:
Can      →        Could
May     →        Might
Might  →        Might
Must    →        Would have to (kegiatan yang akan datang)/had to (keharusan yang biasa)
*etc.
Contoh:
The man said, “I must mend the wall next week”
The man said that he would have to mend the wall the following week.
Pria itu mengatakan bahwa dia harus memperbaiki dinding minggu berikutnya.
The girl said, ” I must wash my hands before eating”
The girl said that she had to wash her hands before eating.
Gadis itu berkata bahwa dia harus mencuci tangannya sebelum makan.
*etc.
Direct and Indirect Speech ada 3 macam:
1. Statement (Pernyataan) yang menggunakan “that”
He said, “we will go to Singapore tomorrow”
He said that they would go to Singapore the next day.
Bob said, ” I’m a university student”
Bob said that he was a university student.

2. Command (Perintah) menambahkan kata “to” sebagai penghubung kalimat melaporkan dengan yang dilaporkan. “not to” dalam perintah negatif.

He told me, “wait for me !”
He told me to wait for him.
She told me, “don’t cheat anymore !”
She told me not to cheat anymore.

3. Question (Pertanyaan) jika kalimat dari jenis “yes or no question”, maka bentuk laporannya menggunakan if atau whether.

Ina asked me, “Do you really love me?”
Ina asked me if/whether I really loved her.
Mixed type:
Contoh:
Anton asked me, “what’s happening to you ? You look so pale”
Anton asked me what was happening to me as I looked so pale.
Catatan: Past Tense kadang-kadang tidak berubah dalam percakapan.

EXAMPLE DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH :

1.      D : She says to her friend, “ I have been reading “

          I : She says to her friend that he has been reading

2.     D : He will say, “ The girl wasn’t ugly “

          I : He will tell them that the girl wasn’t ugly

3.      D : Andi said, “ I’m very sleepy “

          I : Andi said that he was very sleepy

4.      D : He has told you, “ I am writing “

          I : He has told you that he is writing

5.      D : Mother said to her son, “ study hard “

          I : Mothe advised her son to study hard

6.      D : My friend said to me, “ I don’t like football “

          I : My friend said to me that he didn’t like football

7.      D : She said, “ I didn’t go to campus

           I : She said that she hadn’t gone to campus this morning

8.      D : Ayu says, “ I have seen that movies “

           I : Ayu says that she has seen that movies

9.     D : Mother asked her, “ Don’t go there alone “

           I : Mother asked her not to go there alone

10.  D : Father asked robi, “ Don’t smoke too much “

          I : Father asked robi not to smoke too much

Sumber: http://triicecsfabregas.blogspot.com/2012/03/direct-and-indirect-speech.html